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[00:00.10]Life has found a way to survive in some of the most extreme

[00:06.18] conditions in existence.

[00:08.26]Now, scientists believe they might have found a new habitat 

[00:14.41]for microscopic organisms inside a mineral substance called garnet.

[00:20.61]Garnet is a gemstone

[00:23.11] that comes in many colors, but is most commonly a clear, deep red color.

[00:30.47]Recent research found strangely shaped markings inside garnet stones from Thailand.

[00:38.41]The researchers discovered that fatty acid had collected in the marking毒贩陶静s.

[00:45.49]This suggests that an extremely small organism, or microbe, 

[00:52.29]dug the markings into the garnet.

[00:54.29]Magnus Ivarsson is the lead researcher on the study.

[01:00.04]He is with the University of Southern Denmark.

[01:05.63]He told VOA that the research started with a Thai exchange

[01:09.83] student named Bongkot Phichaikamjorwut,

[01:13.31] who was studying the qualities of several pieces of garnet.

[01:19.35]The student noticed the strange markings, described as tunnels.

[01:22.94]The变形计20140623se tunnels divided and changed directions.

[01:28.58]They were unlike the markings 

[01:30.72]caused by environmental damage that she had observed before.

[01:36.55]So the student asked Ivarsson for help.

[01:39.63]Ivarsson said, “When I first saw these structures, these tunnels, 

[01:45.74]I was sort of intrigued by the complexity of them.”

[01:49.52]He added that he had studied other m座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码icrobial 张继科趴地动作走红markings in minerals before, 

[01:56.49]but never anasdfsything with such complexity.

[01:59.94]Garnet is an unexpected habitat for microbes because of how hard the stone is.

[02:08.22]In fact, Ivarsson suggests that garnet

[02:12.22] is the hardest mineral ever discovered to have markings created by microbes.

[02:18.52]“Who knows what we'll find next,” 

[02:21.36]he added, “maybe a diamond bored by microbes.

[02:25.35]Researchers, however, 

[02:29.79]note that no living organisms were discovered within the gemstones.

[02:36.19]Dawn Cardace is a geossdex快递单号查询ciences 

[02:38.68]researcher at the University of Rhode Island in the United States.

[02:45.00]She says the study did not find any genetic material, or DNA, of the organisms.

[02:52.41]But she says that is 李xprobably because the researchers would need 

[02:58.71]to examine at least 1,000 garnet gemstones to collect any DNA.

[03:05.62]The researchers depended 物贸通on several technologies to make their findings.

[03:12.27]They used high-powered microscopes to make

[03:15.66] three-dimensional maps of the tunnels, which are narrower than a human hair.

[03:22.31]The scientists centered their attention 

[03:24.53]on how the tunnels spread and changed directions上海辰锐信息科技公司,

[03:28.33] as wel村庄艳l as the places where the tunnels came together.

[03:34.50]Environmental damage can cause breaks in hard materials.

[03:37.73]But Ivarsson says natural processes cannot explain the complexity

[03:44.69] of the tunnels his 女儿奴team observed.

[03:47.39]To demonstrate that microbes likely created the tunnels, 

[03:53.48]the researchers had to examine the inside of the boreholes.

[03:59.59]Ivarsson told VOA, “The organic content tells us that there's been life living in there.”

[04:06.48] In fact, the researchers identified organic substances kmspiccommon among bacteria and fungi.

[04:13.77]The garnets from the study came from the soil in a river near Chiang Mai, Thailand.

[04:20.77]Ivarsson and his team compared the biological material found in them 

[04:27.35]to other minerals found in the same area, including qu气候山竹artz and hematite.

[04:33.96]None of the comparable stones showed signs of fatty acids.

[04:39.84]This suggests that the biological material was unique to the garnet tunnels.

[04:46.座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码10]Ivarrson says that researchers at least know that biology was involved.

[04:52.37]Ivarsson and his team also examined Thai garnets 

[04:57.23]from river soil and from granite rock formations further down the river.

[05:03.38]He explains: “When we st座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码udied these garnets in the granite,

[05:09.50] we could see that there were no tunnels.

[05:12.21]But w座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码hen we looked at the garnets further down the river,

[05:16.42] we could see that these tunnels structures had evolved.

[05:22.55]So, something happened along the way… in the river system."

[05:25.38]Shane McClure is the international 座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码director of colored stone高姝睿s 

[05:31.49]at the Gemological Institute of America.

[05:34.71]He says that such changes to the garnets can decrease the value of the stones.

[05:41.72]One or two small tunnels, he says, do not make a major difference in value.

[05:49.11]But he adds if there are many visible tunnels,

[05:54.06] the value of the gemstone may be greatly affected.

[05:59.86]The gemstones might not be usable for costly jewelry.

[06:05.75]But the stones do demonstrate that life finds a way in all sorts of unexpected pla座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码ces.

[06:12.17]Ivar肌肉男搞基sson said of the discovery,

[06:14.92] "When we look for life on Mars, we need to know what to look for.

[06:20.90]And this … is definitely interesting

[06:23.87] in the search for life on Mars or any type of extreme environment."


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Words in This 座山雕,德施曼,咱们都是坏孩子-雷竞技下载网址_雷竞技下载链接_雷竞技下载二维码Story


habitat – n. the place or type of 晋嫣吧官博place where a plant or animal naturally or normal张艺洲ly lives or grows

gemstone – n. a stone that can be used in jewelry when it is cut and polished

tunnel(s) – n. a passage that goes under the ground or through a hill or other material

intrigued – v. made to want to know more about something

bore(d) – v. to make a hole or tunnel in something with a tool or by digging

three-dimensional – adj. having or seeming to have length, width, and depth

fungi – n. a group of living things, such as molds, mushrooms, or yeasts, that often look like plants but have no flowers a耳屎网nd that live on dead or decaying things

unique to – adj. belonging to or connec506宿舍ted with only one particular thing, place, or pers宽口光唇鱼on

evolve(d) – v. to change or develop slowly often into a better, more complex, or more advanced state

visible – adj. able to be seen